Module: registration


Coarse to fine optical flow estimator.


Efficient subpixel image translation registration by cross-correlation.


skimage.registration.optical_flow_tvl1(reference_image, moving_image, *, attachment=15, tightness=0.3, num_warp=5, num_iter=10, tol=0.0001, prefilter=False, dtype=<class 'numpy.float32'>)[source]

Coarse to fine optical flow estimator.

The TV-L1 solver is applied at each level of the image pyramid. TV-L1 is a popular algorithm for optical flow estimation introduced by Zack et al. [1], improved in [2] and detailed in [3].

reference_imagendarray, shape (M, N[, P[, …]])

The first gray scale image of the sequence.

moving_imagendarray, shape (M, N[, P[, …]])

The second gray scale image of the sequence.

attachmentfloat, optional

Attachment parameter (\(\lambda\) in [1]). The smaller this parameter is, the smoother the returned result will be.

tightnessfloat, optional

Tightness parameter (\(\tau\) in [1]). It should have a small value in order to maintain attachement and regularization parts in correspondence.

num_warpint, optional

Number of times image1 is warped.

num_iterint, optional

Number of fixed point iteration.

tolfloat, optional

Tolerance used as stopping criterion based on the L² distance between two consecutive values of (u, v).

prefilterbool, optional

Whether to prefilter the estimated optical flow before each image warp. This helps to remove the potential outliers.

dtypedtype, optional

Output data type: must be floating point. Single precision provides good results and saves memory usage and computation time compared to double precision.

flowndarray, shape ((image0.ndim, M, N[, P[, …]])

The estimated optical flow components for each axis.


Color images are not supported.



Zach, C., Pock, T., & Bischof, H. (2007, September). A duality based approach for realtime TV-L 1 optical flow. In Joint pattern recognition symposium (pp. 214-223). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-74936-3_22


Wedel, A., Pock, T., Zach, C., Bischof, H., & Cremers, D. (2009). An improved algorithm for TV-L 1 optical flow. In Statistical and geometrical approaches to visual motion analysis (pp. 23-45). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-03061-1_2


Pérez, J. S., Meinhardt-Llopis, E., & Facciolo, G. (2013). TV-L1 optical flow estimation. Image Processing On Line, 2013, 137-150. DOI:10.5201/ipol.2013.26


>>> from skimage.color import rgb2gray
>>> from import stereo_motorcycle
>>> from skimage.registration import optical_flow_tvl1
>>> image0, image1, disp = stereo_motorcycle()
>>> # --- Convert the images to gray level: color is not supported.
>>> image0 = rgb2gray(image0)
>>> image1 = rgb2gray(image1)
>>> flow = optical_flow_tvl1(image1, image0)

Examples using skimage.registration.optical_flow_tvl1


skimage.registration.phase_cross_correlation(reference_image, moving_image, *, upsample_factor=1, space='real', return_error=True, reference_mask=None, moving_mask=None, overlap_ratio=0.3)[source]

Efficient subpixel image translation registration by cross-correlation.

This code gives the same precision as the FFT upsampled cross-correlation in a fraction of the computation time and with reduced memory requirements. It obtains an initial estimate of the cross-correlation peak by an FFT and then refines the shift estimation by upsampling the DFT only in a small neighborhood of that estimate by means of a matrix-multiply DFT.


Reference image.


Image to register. Must be same dimensionality as reference_image.

upsample_factorint, optional

Upsampling factor. Images will be registered to within 1 / upsample_factor of a pixel. For example upsample_factor == 20 means the images will be registered within 1/20th of a pixel. Default is 1 (no upsampling). Not used if any of reference_mask or moving_mask is not None.

spacestring, one of “real” or “fourier”, optional

Defines how the algorithm interprets input data. “real” means data will be FFT’d to compute the correlation, while “fourier” data will bypass FFT of input data. Case insensitive. Not used if any of reference_mask or moving_mask is not None.

return_errorbool, optional

Returns error and phase difference if on, otherwise only shifts are returned. Has noeffect if any of reference_mask or moving_mask is not None. In this case only shifts is returned.


Boolean mask for reference_image. The mask should evaluate to True (or 1) on valid pixels. reference_mask should have the same shape as reference_image.

moving_maskndarray or None, optional

Boolean mask for moving_image. The mask should evaluate to True (or 1) on valid pixels. moving_mask should have the same shape as moving_image. If None, reference_mask will be used.

overlap_ratiofloat, optional

Minimum allowed overlap ratio between images. The correlation for translations corresponding with an overlap ratio lower than this threshold will be ignored. A lower overlap_ratio leads to smaller maximum translation, while a higher overlap_ratio leads to greater robustness against spurious matches due to small overlap between masked images. Used only if one of reference_mask or moving_mask is None.


Shift vector (in pixels) required to register moving_image with reference_image. Axis ordering is consistent with numpy (e.g. Z, Y, X)


Translation invariant normalized RMS error between reference_image and moving_image.


Global phase difference between the two images (should be zero if images are non-negative).



Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Samuel T. Thurman, and James R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Optics Letters 33, 156-158 (2008). DOI:10.1364/OL.33.000156


James R. Fienup, “Invariant error metrics for image reconstruction” Optics Letters 36, 8352-8357 (1997). DOI:10.1364/AO.36.008352


Dirk Padfield. Masked Object Registration in the Fourier Domain. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 21(5), pp. 2706-2718 (2012). DOI:10.1109/TIP.2011.2181402


D. Padfield. “Masked FFT registration”. In Proc. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 2918-2925 (2010). DOI:10.1109/CVPR.2010.5540032