filters
¶skimage.filters.inverse (data[, …]) 
Apply the filter in reverse to the given data. 
skimage.filters.wiener (data[, …]) 
Minimum Mean Square Error (Wiener) inverse filter. 
skimage.filters.gaussian (image[, sigma, …]) 
Multidimensional Gaussian filter. 
skimage.filters.median (image[, selem, out, …]) 
Return local median of an image. 
skimage.filters.sobel (image[, mask]) 
Find the edge magnitude using the Sobel transform. 
skimage.filters.sobel_h (image[, mask]) 
Find the horizontal edges of an image using the Sobel transform. 
skimage.filters.sobel_v (image[, mask]) 
Find the vertical edges of an image using the Sobel transform. 
skimage.filters.scharr (image[, mask]) 
Find the edge magnitude using the Scharr transform. 
skimage.filters.scharr_h (image[, mask]) 
Find the horizontal edges of an image using the Scharr transform. 
skimage.filters.scharr_v (image[, mask]) 
Find the vertical edges of an image using the Scharr transform. 
skimage.filters.prewitt (image[, mask]) 
Find the edge magnitude using the Prewitt transform. 
skimage.filters.prewitt_h (image[, mask]) 
Find the horizontal edges of an image using the Prewitt transform. 
skimage.filters.prewitt_v (image[, mask]) 
Find the vertical edges of an image using the Prewitt transform. 
skimage.filters.roberts (image[, mask]) 
Find the edge magnitude using Roberts’ cross operator. 
skimage.filters.roberts_pos_diag (image[, mask]) 
Find the cross edges of an image using Roberts’ cross operator. 
skimage.filters.roberts_neg_diag (image[, mask]) 
Find the cross edges of an image using the Roberts’ Cross operator. 
skimage.filters.laplace (image[, ksize, mask]) 
Find the edges of an image using the Laplace operator. 
skimage.filters.rank_order (image) 
Return an image of the same shape where each pixel is the index of the pixel value in the ascending order of the unique values of image, aka the rankorder value. 
skimage.filters.gabor_kernel (frequency[, …]) 
Return complex 2D Gabor filter kernel. 
skimage.filters.gabor (image, frequency[, …]) 
Return real and imaginary responses to Gabor filter. 
skimage.filters.try_all_threshold (image[, …]) 
Returns a figure comparing the outputs of different thresholding methods. 
skimage.filters.frangi (image[, scale_range, …]) 
Filter an image with the Frangi filter. 
skimage.filters.hessian (image[, …]) 
Filter an image with the Hessian filter. 
skimage.filters.threshold_adaptive (image, …) 
Deprecated function. 
skimage.filters.threshold_otsu (image[, nbins]) 
Return threshold value based on Otsu’s method. 
skimage.filters.threshold_yen (image[, nbins]) 
Return threshold value based on Yen’s method. 
skimage.filters.threshold_isodata (image[, …]) 
Return threshold value(s) based on ISODATA method. 
skimage.filters.threshold_li (image) 
Return threshold value based on adaptation of Li’s Minimum Cross Entropy method. 
skimage.filters.threshold_minimum (image[, …]) 
Return threshold value based on minimum method. 
skimage.filters.threshold_mean (image) 
Return threshold value based on the mean of grayscale values. 
skimage.filters.threshold_niblack (image[, …]) 
Applies Niblack local threshold to an array. 
skimage.filters.threshold_sauvola (image[, …]) 
Applies Sauvola local threshold to an array. 
skimage.filters.threshold_triangle (image[, …]) 
Return threshold value based on the triangle algorithm. 
skimage.filters.apply_hysteresis_threshold (…) 
Apply hysteresis thresholding to image. 
skimage.filters.LPIFilter2D (…) 
Linear PositionInvariant Filter (2dimensional) 
skimage.filters.rank 
skimage.filters.
inverse
(data, impulse_response=None, filter_params={}, max_gain=2, predefined_filter=None)[source]¶Apply the filter in reverse to the given data.
Parameters:  data : (M,N) ndarray
impulse_response : callable f(r, c, **filter_params)
filter_params : dict
max_gain : float


Other Parameters:  
predefined_filter : LPIFilter2D

skimage.filters.
wiener
(data, impulse_response=None, filter_params={}, K=0.25, predefined_filter=None)[source]¶Minimum Mean Square Error (Wiener) inverse filter.
Parameters:  data : (M,N) ndarray
K : float or (M,N) ndarray
impulse_response : callable f(r, c, **filter_params)
filter_params : dict


Other Parameters:  
predefined_filter : LPIFilter2D

skimage.filters.
gaussian
(image, sigma=1, output=None, mode='nearest', cval=0, multichannel=None, preserve_range=False, truncate=4.0)[source]¶Multidimensional Gaussian filter.
Parameters:  image : arraylike
sigma : scalar or sequence of scalars, optional
output : array, optional
mode : {‘reflect’, ‘constant’, ‘nearest’, ‘mirror’, ‘wrap’}, optional
cval : scalar, optional
multichannel : bool, optional (default: None)
preserve_range : bool, optional
truncate : float, optional


Returns:  filtered_image : ndarray

Notes
This function is a wrapper around scipy.ndi.gaussian_filter()
.
Integer arrays are converted to float.
The multidimensional filter is implemented as a sequence of onedimensional convolution filters. The intermediate arrays are stored in the same data type as the output. Therefore, for output types with a limited precision, the results may be imprecise because intermediate results may be stored with insufficient precision.
Examples
>>> a = np.zeros((3, 3))
>>> a[1, 1] = 1
>>> a
array([[ 0., 0., 0.],
[ 0., 1., 0.],
[ 0., 0., 0.]])
>>> gaussian(a, sigma=0.4) # mild smoothing
array([[ 0.00163116, 0.03712502, 0.00163116],
[ 0.03712502, 0.84496158, 0.03712502],
[ 0.00163116, 0.03712502, 0.00163116]])
>>> gaussian(a, sigma=1) # more smoothing
array([[ 0.05855018, 0.09653293, 0.05855018],
[ 0.09653293, 0.15915589, 0.09653293],
[ 0.05855018, 0.09653293, 0.05855018]])
>>> # Several modes are possible for handling boundaries
>>> gaussian(a, sigma=1, mode='reflect')
array([[ 0.08767308, 0.12075024, 0.08767308],
[ 0.12075024, 0.16630671, 0.12075024],
[ 0.08767308, 0.12075024, 0.08767308]])
>>> # For RGB images, each is filtered separately
>>> from skimage.data import astronaut
>>> image = astronaut()
>>> filtered_img = gaussian(image, sigma=1, multichannel=True)
skimage.filters.
median
(image, selem=None, out=None, mask=None, shift_x=False, shift_y=False)[source]¶Return local median of an image.
Parameters:  image : 2D array (uint8, uint16)
selem : 2D array, optional
out : 2D array (same dtype as input)
mask : ndarray
shift_x, shift_y : int


Returns:  out : 2D array (same dtype as input image)

Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> from skimage.morphology import disk
>>> from skimage.filters.rank import median
>>> img = data.camera()
>>> med = median(img, disk(5))
skimage.filters.
sobel
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the edge magnitude using the Sobel transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
Take the square root of the sum of the squares of the horizontal and vertical Sobels to get a magnitude that’s somewhat insensitive to direction.
The 3x3 convolution kernel used in the horizontal and vertical Sobels is an approximation of the gradient of the image (with some slight blurring since 9 pixels are used to compute the gradient at a given pixel). As an approximation of the gradient, the Sobel operator is not completely rotationinvariant. The Scharr operator should be used for a better rotation invariance.
Note that scipy.ndimage.sobel
returns a directional Sobel which
has to be further processed to perform edge detection.
Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> camera = data.camera()
>>> from skimage import filters
>>> edges = filters.sobel(camera)
skimage.filters.
sobel_h
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the horizontal edges of an image using the Sobel transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
1 2 1
0 0 0
1 2 1
skimage.filters.
sobel_v
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the vertical edges of an image using the Sobel transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
1 0 1
2 0 2
1 0 1
skimage.filters.
scharr
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the edge magnitude using the Scharr transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
Take the square root of the sum of the squares of the horizontal and vertical Scharrs to get a magnitude that is somewhat insensitive to direction. The Scharr operator has a better rotation invariance than other edge filters such as the Sobel or the Prewitt operators.
References
[R230]  D. Kroon, 2009, Short Paper University Twente, Numerical Optimization of Kernel Based Image Derivatives. 
[R231]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobel_operator#Alternative_operators 
Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> camera = data.camera()
>>> from skimage import filters
>>> edges = filters.scharr(camera)
skimage.filters.
scharr_h
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the horizontal edges of an image using the Scharr transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
3 10 3
0 0 0
3 10 3
References
[R232]  D. Kroon, 2009, Short Paper University Twente, Numerical Optimization of Kernel Based Image Derivatives. 
skimage.filters.
scharr_v
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the vertical edges of an image using the Scharr transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
3 0 3
10 0 10
3 0 3
References
[R233]  D. Kroon, 2009, Short Paper University Twente, Numerical Optimization of Kernel Based Image Derivatives. 
skimage.filters.
prewitt
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the edge magnitude using the Prewitt transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
Return the square root of the sum of squares of the horizontal and vertical Prewitt transforms. The edge magnitude depends slightly on edge directions, since the approximation of the gradient operator by the Prewitt operator is not completely rotation invariant. For a better rotation invariance, the Scharr operator should be used. The Sobel operator has a better rotation invariance than the Prewitt operator, but a worse rotation invariance than the Scharr operator.
Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> camera = data.camera()
>>> from skimage import filters
>>> edges = filters.prewitt(camera)
skimage.filters.
prewitt_h
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the horizontal edges of an image using the Prewitt transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1
skimage.filters.
prewitt_v
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the vertical edges of an image using the Prewitt transform.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
1 0 1
1 0 1
1 0 1
skimage.filters.
roberts
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the edge magnitude using Roberts’ cross operator.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> camera = data.camera()
>>> from skimage import filters
>>> edges = filters.roberts(camera)
skimage.filters.
roberts_pos_diag
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the cross edges of an image using Roberts’ cross operator.
The kernel is applied to the input image to produce separate measurements of the gradient component one orientation.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
1 0
0 1
skimage.filters.
roberts_neg_diag
(image, mask=None)[source]¶Find the cross edges of an image using the Roberts’ Cross operator.
The kernel is applied to the input image to produce separate measurements of the gradient component one orientation.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
mask : 2D array, optional


Returns:  output : 2D array

Notes
We use the following kernel:
0 1
1 0
skimage.filters.
laplace
(image, ksize=3, mask=None)[source]¶Find the edges of an image using the Laplace operator.
Parameters:  image : ndarray
ksize : int, optional
mask : ndarray, optional


Returns:  output : ndarray

Notes
The Laplacian operator is generated using the function skimage.restoration.uft.laplacian().
skimage.filters.
rank_order
(image)[source]¶Return an image of the same shape where each pixel is the index of the pixel value in the ascending order of the unique values of image, aka the rankorder value.
Parameters:  image: ndarray 

Returns:  labels: ndarray of type np.uint32, of shape image.shape
original_values: 1D ndarray

Examples
>>> a = np.array([[1, 4, 5], [4, 4, 1], [5, 1, 1]])
>>> a
array([[1, 4, 5],
[4, 4, 1],
[5, 1, 1]])
>>> rank_order(a)
(array([[0, 1, 2],
[1, 1, 0],
[2, 0, 0]], dtype=uint32), array([1, 4, 5]))
>>> b = np.array([1., 2.5, 3.1, 2.5])
>>> rank_order(b)
(array([0, 1, 2, 1], dtype=uint32), array([1. , 2.5, 3.1]))
skimage.filters.
gabor_kernel
(frequency, theta=0, bandwidth=1, sigma_x=None, sigma_y=None, n_stds=3, offset=0)[source]¶Return complex 2D Gabor filter kernel.
Gabor kernel is a Gaussian kernel modulated by a complex harmonic function. Harmonic function consists of an imaginary sine function and a real cosine function. Spatial frequency is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the harmonic and to the standard deviation of a Gaussian kernel. The bandwidth is also inversely proportional to the standard deviation.
Parameters:  frequency : float
theta : float, optional
bandwidth : float, optional
sigma_x, sigma_y : float, optional
n_stds : scalar, optional
offset : float, optional


Returns:  g : complex array

References
[R234]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabor_filter 
[R235]  http://mplab.ucsd.edu/tutorials/gabor.pdf 
Examples
>>> from skimage.filters import gabor_kernel
>>> from skimage import io
>>> from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
>>> gk = gabor_kernel(frequency=0.2)
>>> plt.figure()
>>> io.imshow(gk.real)
>>> io.show()
>>> # more ripples (equivalent to increasing the size of the
>>> # Gaussian spread)
>>> gk = gabor_kernel(frequency=0.2, bandwidth=0.1)
>>> plt.figure()
>>> io.imshow(gk.real)
>>> io.show()
skimage.filters.
gabor
(image, frequency, theta=0, bandwidth=1, sigma_x=None, sigma_y=None, n_stds=3, offset=0, mode='reflect', cval=0)[source]¶Return real and imaginary responses to Gabor filter.
The real and imaginary parts of the Gabor filter kernel are applied to the image and the response is returned as a pair of arrays.
Gabor filter is a linear filter with a Gaussian kernel which is modulated by a sinusoidal plane wave. Frequency and orientation representations of the Gabor filter are similar to those of the human visual system. Gabor filter banks are commonly used in computer vision and image processing. They are especially suitable for edge detection and texture classification.
Parameters:  image : 2D array
frequency : float
theta : float, optional
bandwidth : float, optional
sigma_x, sigma_y : float, optional
n_stds : scalar, optional
offset : float, optional
mode : {‘constant’, ‘nearest’, ‘reflect’, ‘mirror’, ‘wrap’}, optional
cval : scalar, optional


Returns:  real, imag : arrays

References
[R236]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabor_filter 
[R237]  http://mplab.ucsd.edu/tutorials/gabor.pdf 
Examples
>>> from skimage.filters import gabor
>>> from skimage import data, io
>>> from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
>>> image = data.coins()
>>> # detecting edges in a coin image
>>> filt_real, filt_imag = gabor(image, frequency=0.6)
>>> plt.figure()
>>> io.imshow(filt_real)
>>> io.show()
>>> # less sensitivity to finer details with the lower frequency kernel
>>> filt_real, filt_imag = gabor(image, frequency=0.1)
>>> plt.figure()
>>> io.imshow(filt_real)
>>> io.show()
skimage.filters.
try_all_threshold
(image, figsize=(8, 5), verbose=True)[source]¶Returns a figure comparing the outputs of different thresholding methods.
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray
figsize : tuple, optional
verbose : bool, optional


Returns:  fig, ax : tuple

Notes
The following algorithms are used:
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import text
>>> fig, ax = try_all_threshold(text(), figsize=(10, 6), verbose=False)
skimage.filters.
frangi
(image, scale_range=(1, 10), scale_step=2, beta1=0.5, beta2=15, black_ridges=True)[source]¶Filter an image with the Frangi filter.
This filter can be used to detect continuous edges, e.g. vessels, wrinkles, rivers. It can be used to calculate the fraction of the whole image containing such objects.
Calculates the eigenvectors of the Hessian to compute the similarity of an image region to vessels, according to the method described in [R238].
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray
scale_range : 2tuple of floats, optional
scale_step : float, optional
beta1 : float, optional
beta2 : float, optional
black_ridges : boolean, optional


Returns:  out : (N, M) ndarray

Notes
Written by Marc Schrijver, 2/11/2001 ReWritten by D. J. Kroon University of Twente (May 2009)
References
[R238]  (1, 2) A. Frangi, W. Niessen, K. Vincken, and M. Viergever. “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” In LNCS, vol. 1496, pages 130137, Germany, 1998. SpringerVerlag. 
[R239]  Kroon, D.J.: Hessian based Frangi vesselness filter. 
[R240]  http://mplab.ucsd.edu/tutorials/gabor.pdf. 
skimage.filters.
hessian
(image, scale_range=(1, 10), scale_step=2, beta1=0.5, beta2=15)[source]¶Filter an image with the Hessian filter.
This filter can be used to detect continuous edges, e.g. vessels, wrinkles, rivers. It can be used to calculate the fraction of the whole image containing such objects.
Almost equal to Frangi filter, but uses alternative method of smoothing. Refer to [R241] to find the differences between Frangi and Hessian filters.
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray
scale_range : 2tuple of floats, optional
scale_step : float, optional
beta1 : float, optional
beta2 : float, optional


Returns:  out : (N, M) ndarray

Notes
Written by Marc Schrijver, 2/11/2001 ReWritten by D. J. Kroon University of Twente (May 2009)
References
[R241]  (1, 2) ChoonChing Ng, Moi Hoon Yap, Nicholas Costen and Baihua Li, “Automatic Wrinkle Detection using Hybrid Hessian Filter”. 
skimage.filters.
threshold_otsu
(image, nbins=256)[source]¶Return threshold value based on Otsu’s method.
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray
nbins : int, optional


Returns:  threshold : float

Raises:  ValueError

Notes
The input image must be grayscale.
References
[R242]  Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otsu’s_Method 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import camera
>>> image = camera()
>>> thresh = threshold_otsu(image)
>>> binary = image <= thresh
skimage.filters.
threshold_yen
(image, nbins=256)[source]¶Return threshold value based on Yen’s method.
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray
nbins : int, optional


Returns:  threshold : float

References
[R243]  Yen J.C., Chang F.J., and Chang S. (1995) “A New Criterion for Automatic Multilevel Thresholding” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 4(3): 370378. DOI:10.1109/83.366472 
[R244]  Sezgin M. and Sankur B. (2004) “Survey over Image Thresholding Techniques and Quantitative Performance Evaluation” Journal of Electronic Imaging, 13(1): 146165, DOI:10.1117/1.1631315 http://www.busim.ee.boun.edu.tr/~sankur/SankurFolder/Threshold_survey.pdf 
[R245]  ImageJ AutoThresholder code, http://fiji.sc/wiki/index.php/Auto_Threshold 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import camera
>>> image = camera()
>>> thresh = threshold_yen(image)
>>> binary = image <= thresh
skimage.filters.
threshold_isodata
(image, nbins=256, return_all=False)[source]¶Return threshold value(s) based on ISODATA method.
Histogrambased threshold, known as RidlerCalvard method or intermeans. Threshold values returned satisfy the following equality:
threshold = (image[image <= threshold].mean() +
image[image > threshold].mean()) / 2.0
That is, returned thresholds are intensities that separate the image into two groups of pixels, where the threshold intensity is midway between the mean intensities of these groups.
For integer images, the above equality holds to within one; for floating point images, the equality holds to within the histogram binwidth.
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray
nbins : int, optional
return_all: bool, optional


Returns:  threshold : float or int or array

References
[R246]  Ridler, TW & Calvard, S (1978), “Picture thresholding using an iterative selection method” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 8: 630632, DOI:10.1109/TSMC.1978.4310039 
[R247]  Sezgin M. and Sankur B. (2004) “Survey over Image Thresholding Techniques and Quantitative Performance Evaluation” Journal of Electronic Imaging, 13(1): 146165, http://www.busim.ee.boun.edu.tr/~sankur/SankurFolder/Threshold_survey.pdf DOI:10.1117/1.1631315 
[R248]  ImageJ AutoThresholder code, http://fiji.sc/wiki/index.php/Auto_Threshold 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import coins
>>> image = coins()
>>> thresh = threshold_isodata(image)
>>> binary = image > thresh
skimage.filters.
threshold_li
(image)[source]¶Return threshold value based on adaptation of Li’s Minimum Cross Entropy method.
Parameters:  image : (N, M) ndarray


Returns:  threshold : float

References
[R249]  Li C.H. and Lee C.K. (1993) “Minimum Cross Entropy Thresholding” Pattern Recognition, 26(4): 617625 DOI:10.1016/00313203(93)90115D 
[R250]  Li C.H. and Tam P.K.S. (1998) “An Iterative Algorithm for Minimum Cross Entropy Thresholding” Pattern Recognition Letters, 18(8): 771776 DOI:10.1016/S01678655(98)000579 
[R251]  Sezgin M. and Sankur B. (2004) “Survey over Image Thresholding Techniques and Quantitative Performance Evaluation” Journal of Electronic Imaging, 13(1): 146165 DOI:10.1117/1.1631315 
[R252]  ImageJ AutoThresholder code, http://fiji.sc/wiki/index.php/Auto_Threshold 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import camera
>>> image = camera()
>>> thresh = threshold_li(image)
>>> binary = image > thresh
skimage.filters.
threshold_minimum
(image, nbins=256, max_iter=10000)[source]¶Return threshold value based on minimum method.
The histogram of the input image is computed and smoothed until there are only two maxima. Then the minimum in between is the threshold value.
Parameters:  image : (M, N) ndarray
nbins : int, optional
max_iter: int, optional


Returns:  threshold : float

Raises:  RuntimeError

References
[R253]  C. A. Glasbey, “An analysis of histogrambased thresholding algorithms,” CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing, vol. 55, pp. 532537, 1993. 
[R254]  Prewitt, JMS & Mendelsohn, ML (1966), “The analysis of cell images”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 128: 10351053 DOI:10.1111/j.17496632.1965.tb11715.x 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import camera
>>> image = camera()
>>> thresh = threshold_minimum(image)
>>> binary = image > thresh
skimage.filters.
threshold_mean
(image)[source]¶Return threshold value based on the mean of grayscale values.
Parameters:  image : (N, M[, …, P]) ndarray


Returns:  threshold : float

References
[R255]  C. A. Glasbey, “An analysis of histogrambased thresholding algorithms,” CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing, vol. 55, pp. 532537, 1993. DOI:10.1006/cgip.1993.1040 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import camera
>>> image = camera()
>>> thresh = threshold_mean(image)
>>> binary = image > thresh
skimage.filters.
threshold_niblack
(image, window_size=15, k=0.2)[source]¶Applies Niblack local threshold to an array.
A threshold T is calculated for every pixel in the image using the following formula:
T = m(x,y)  k * s(x,y)
where m(x,y) and s(x,y) are the mean and standard deviation of pixel (x,y) neighborhood defined by a rectangular window with size w times w centered around the pixel. k is a configurable parameter that weights the effect of standard deviation.
Parameters:  image: (N, M) ndarray
window_size : int, optional
k : float, optional


Returns:  threshold : (N, M) ndarray

Notes
This algorithm is originally designed for text recognition.
References
[R256]  Niblack, W (1986), An introduction to Digital Image Processing, PrenticeHall. 
Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> image = data.page()
>>> binary_image = threshold_niblack(image, window_size=7, k=0.1)
skimage.filters.
threshold_sauvola
(image, window_size=15, k=0.2, r=None)[source]¶Applies Sauvola local threshold to an array. Sauvola is a modification of Niblack technique.
In the original method a threshold T is calculated for every pixel in the image using the following formula:
T = m(x,y) * (1 + k * ((s(x,y) / R)  1))
where m(x,y) and s(x,y) are the mean and standard deviation of pixel (x,y) neighborhood defined by a rectangular window with size w times w centered around the pixel. k is a configurable parameter that weights the effect of standard deviation. R is the maximum standard deviation of a greyscale image.
Parameters:  image: (N, M) ndarray
window_size : int, optional
k : float, optional
r : float, optional


Returns:  threshold : (N, M) ndarray

Notes
This algorithm is originally designed for text recognition.
References
[R257]  J. Sauvola and M. Pietikainen, “Adaptive document image binarization,” Pattern Recognition 33(2), pp. 225236, 2000. DOI:10.1016/S00313203(99)000552 
Examples
>>> from skimage import data
>>> image = data.page()
>>> t_sauvola = threshold_sauvola(image, window_size=15, k=0.2)
>>> binary_image = image > t_sauvola
skimage.filters.
threshold_triangle
(image, nbins=256)[source]¶Return threshold value based on the triangle algorithm.
Parameters:  image : (N, M[, …, P]) ndarray
nbins : int, optional


Returns:  threshold : float

References
[R258]  Zack, G. W., Rogers, W. E. and Latt, S. A., 1977, Automatic Measurement of Sister Chromatid Exchange Frequency, Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 25 (7), pp. 741753 DOI:10.1177/25.7.70454 
[R259]  ImageJ AutoThresholder code, http://fiji.sc/wiki/index.php/Auto_Threshold 
Examples
>>> from skimage.data import camera
>>> image = camera()
>>> thresh = threshold_triangle(image)
>>> binary = image > thresh
skimage.filters.
apply_hysteresis_threshold
(image, low, high)[source]¶Apply hysteresis thresholding to image.
This algorithm finds regions where image is greater than high OR image is greater than low and that region is connected to a region greater than high.
Parameters:  image : array, shape (M,[ N, …, P])
low : float, or array of same shape as image
high : float, or array of same shape as image


Returns:  thresholded : array of bool, same shape as image

References
[R260]  J. Canny. A computational approach to edge detection. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 1986; vol. 8, pp.679698. DOI: 10.1109/TPAMI.1986.4767851 
Examples
>>> image = np.array([1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2])
>>> apply_hysteresis_threshold(image, 1.5, 2.5).astype(int)
array([0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1])
LPIFilter2D
¶skimage.filters.
LPIFilter2D
(impulse_response, **filter_params)[source]¶Bases: object
Linear PositionInvariant Filter (2dimensional)
__init__
(impulse_response, **filter_params)[source]¶Parameters:  impulse_response : callable f(r, c, **filter_params)


Examples
Gaussian filter: Use a 1D gaussian in each direction without normalization coefficients.
>>> def filt_func(r, c, sigma = 1):
... return np.exp(np.hypot(r, c)/sigma)
>>> filter = LPIFilter2D(filt_func)